Exercise can do more than help you lose weight. It can increase circulation, decrease stress, and reduce the risk for heart disease and strokes by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. Getting some exercise is recommended for overall health. For people with diabetes, exercise can do even more. It can help keep blood glucose levels in range, and can go a long way towards preventing the complications associated with diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can be a balancing act when it comes to exercise. People diagnosed with Type 1 produce no insulin, or very little, in response to eating. They must take insulin in some form everyday in order to live. Blood glucose levels are dependent upon carbohydrates eaten, insulin administration and activity level.
Exercise can lower blood glucose levels during exercise and also after the exercise is finished. This can result in hypoglycemia. People with Type 1 need to check their blood glucose before, during and after exercise, and also bring a few carbohydrate snacks with them in case their blood sugar drops.
With careful monitoring of blood glucose, a person with Type 1 can learn what their individual response is to exercise and how many carbs to take in and how much insulin to use. A good guideline to follow is to eat 15 to 30 gm of carbohydrate snack every 30 to 60 minutes during exercise or if glucose levels are 100 mg/dl or less. Avoid exercise if fasting glucose levels are greater than 250 mg/dl, especially if ketosis is present. Ketosis changes the acidity of the blood and can damage kidneys and the liver.
People diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes usually have something called "insulin resistance." This means that their bodies still produce insulin, but it's not as effective at lowering blood glucose any more. Sometimes the insulin receptors aren't as sensitive, and sometimes the pancreas just doesn't make as much insulin as it used to. This insulin resistance is usually associated with increased fat and decreased muscle mass. Muscle cells use insulin much more efficiently than fat cells do, so building more muscle and reducing fat helps the body use the insulin that is produced thereby lowering overall blood glucose levels.
People who are overweight and sedentary are at risk for developing pre-diabetes, which can be a precursor to Type 2. Prediabetes is diagnosed when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is greater than 100 mg/dl but less than 126 mg/dl, or greater than 140 mg/dl but less than 200 mg/dl during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The danger of Type 2 can be delayed or possibly even prevented if lifestyle changes include weight loss and increased physical activity.
How To Begin
Aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity five days a week. There are lots of different kinds of exercise. Try some of these or come up with your own:
- Walking, biking, hiking, or dancing
- Exercise videos and DVD's at home
- Classes at the local Y such as yoga, tai chi, or pilates
- Team sports like volleyball, martial arts, basketball, raquetball
- Winter sports like cross country skiing, snowshoeing, or mall walking
Before beginning an exercise program, be sure to check with your doctor. Here's more on getting started:
There can sometimes be the possibility of underlying complications with diabetes and those should be taken into consideration before starting your exercise program.
"Physical Activity and Type 1 Diabetes." Living With Diabetes. Canadian Diabetes Association. 14 Nov 2006